the mechanism of the action of vulcanization accelerators

  • vulcanization accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Vulcanization Accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Accelerators for Sulfur Vulcanization of Rubbers Vulcanization of rubber by sulfur alone is an extremely slow process and can take several hours at elevated temperature (140°C or more). This is problematic becasue long exposure to temperature and oxygen leads to oxidative degradation which, in turn, results in poor mechanical properties.

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    Vulcanization as a process of chemical crosslinking formation occurs when this reaction proceeds with radicals formation (light effect, redox systems). Disulfides and sulfenamides cause the effect of vulcanization passing through the stage of hydrogen separation from α‐methylene group, and the formation of polymer radicals.

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The Mechanism of Vulcanization and the Action of Accelerators

    As a prototype of such reaction is the interaction of hydrogen sulfide and SO 2 which in rubber causes the socalled Peachey vulcanization. The usual views on the mechanism of this process are that the activity of sulfur liberated in statu nascendi is high enough to enable it to react with rubber and to create the spatial structure of the

  • synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    Synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    The proposed mechanism of action agrees with the fact that on heating the: 26 V.P. BUDTOV e$ al. accelerators with sulphur in conditions of vulcanization a product forms with tetracoordinated phosphorus atom which was fixed by us by the alp NMR method.

  • vulcanization & accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links(of sulfur). The vulcanization process was discovered in 1839 and the individuals responsible for this discovery were

  • vulcanization

    Vulcanization

    Vulcanization (British: Vulcanisation) refers to a range of processes for hardening rubbers. The term originally referred exclusively to the treatment of natural rubber with sulfur, which remains the most common practice; however, it has also grown to include the hardening of other (synthetic) rubbers via various means.

  • vulcanization accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Vulcanization Accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    The accelerators can be further classified as primary and secondary accelerators. The primary accelerators are typically used at 0.5 to 1.5 phr. The vulcanization speed of these system can range from slow to ultra fast depending on composition and type of accelerator.

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    Vulcanization as a process of chemical crosslinking formation occurs when this reaction proceeds with radicals formation (light effect, redox systems). Disulfides and sulfenamides cause the effect of vulcanization passing through the stage of hydrogen separation from α‐methylene group, and the formation of polymer radicals.

  • mechanism of the action of accelerators of vulcanization

    Mechanism of the Action of Accelerators of Vulcanization

    The problem of the mechanism of the action of accelerators and vulcanizing agents during the vulcanization of rubber has been studied in earlier works. It was shown that, during the vulcanization of natural and sodium-butadiene rubber, accelerators of the type of mercaptobenzothiazole and tetramethylthiuram disulfide enter into exchange

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The Mechanism of Vulcanization and the Action of Accelerators

    As a prototype of such reaction is the interaction of hydrogen sulfide and SO 2 which in rubber causes the socalled Peachey vulcanization. The usual views on the mechanism of this process are that the activity of sulfur liberated in statu nascendi is high enough to enable it to react with rubber and to create the spatial structure of the

  • synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    Synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    The proposed mechanism of action agrees with the fact that on heating the: 26 V.P. BUDTOV e$ al. accelerators with sulphur in conditions of vulcanization a product forms with tetracoordinated phosphorus atom which was fixed by us by the alp NMR method.

  • vulcanization & accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links(of sulfur). The vulcanization process was discovered in 1839 and the individuals responsible for this discovery were

  • vulcanization & accelerators - nocil ltd

    Vulcanization & Accelerators - Nocil Ltd

    Delayed Action - R & D efforts for more effective delayed action accelerators. 1930 . Delayed Action - Sulfenamide accelerator developed- USA. 1937 ; Delayed Action - Several other Sulfenamide accelerators developed ; 1945 … Delayed Action - Pre Vulcanization Inhibitor CTP - USA . 1970 ; PVI - Post Vulcanization Stabilizers ; 1990s… PVS

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    Vulcanization as a process of chemical crosslinking formation occurs when this reaction proceeds with radicals formation (light effect, redox systems). Disulfides and sulfenamides cause the effect of vulcanization passing through the stage of hydrogen separation from α‐methylene group, and the formation of polymer radicals.

  • vulcanization accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Vulcanization Accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Accelerators for Sulfur Vulcanization of Rubbers Vulcanization of rubber by sulfur alone is an extremely slow process and can take several hours at elevated temperature (140°C or more). This is problematic becasue long exposure to temperature and oxygen leads to oxidative degradation which, in turn, results in poor mechanical properties.

  • chemical interaction and mechanism of activation of binary

    Chemical interaction and mechanism of activation of binary

    An investigation of the vulcanization of various types of butadiene‐styrene and natural rubbers showed that double accelerator systems may be divided into three groups; namely: systems with mutual activation of the accelerators, systems with activation of one of the accelerators, and systems with additive action of the accelerators.

  • sulfur vulcanization

    Sulfur vulcanization

    Accelerants (accelerators) act much like catalysts allowing vulcanization to be performed cooler yet faster and with a more efficient use of sulfur. They achieve this by reacting with and breaking the sulfur to form a reactive intermediate, referred to as a sulfurating agent.

  • accelerant

    Accelerant

    Accelerators and activators break sulfur chains. Accelerated sulfur vulcanization systems require only 5-15 sulfur atoms per cross-link as compared to 40-45 S atoms/crosslink for a non-accelerated sulfur vulcanization. There are many accelerators available for the vulcanization of rubber. That is because there is a wide range of rubber articles

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    Vulcanization as a process of chemical crosslinking formation occurs when this reaction proceeds with radicals formation (light effect, redox systems). Disulfides and sulfenamides cause the effect of vulcanization passing through the stage of hydrogen separation from α‐methylene group, and the formation of polymer radicals.

  • synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    Synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    The proposed mechanism of action agrees with the fact that on heating the: 26 V.P. BUDTOV e$ al. accelerators with sulphur in conditions of vulcanization a product forms with tetracoordinated phosphorus atom which was fixed by us by the alp NMR method.

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The Mechanism of Vulcanization and the Action of Accelerators

    As a prototype of such reaction is the interaction of hydrogen sulfide and SO 2 which in rubber causes the socalled Peachey vulcanization. The usual views on the mechanism of this process are that the activity of sulfur liberated in statu nascendi is high enough to enable it to react with rubber and to create the spatial structure of the

  • the action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    The action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    THE ACTION OF BINARY SYSTEMS OF VULCANIZATION ACCELERATORS * B. A. DOGADKIN, M. S. FEL'DSHTEIN and E. N. BYELIAEVA Scientific-Research Institute of the Tyre Industry, Moscow (Received 8 January 1919) MIXTURES of two or moreeccelerators, as a rule, have a higher vulcanization acti- vity than each of the given accelerators used singly.

  • reactions of accelerators during vulcanization. iv--mechanism

    Reactions of Accelerators during Vulcanization. IV--Mechanism

    The Mechanism of Zinc(II)-Dithiocarbamate-Accelerated Vulcanization Uncovered; Theoretical and Experimental Evidence. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1999, 121 (1) , 163-168. DOI: 10.1021/ja982217n. Heinz Krebs, Herbert Fassbender, Franz Jörgens.

  • vulcanization accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Vulcanization Accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    The accelerators can be further classified as primary and secondary accelerators. The primary accelerators are typically used at 0.5 to 1.5 phr. The vulcanization speed of these system can range from slow to ultra fast depending on composition and type of accelerator.

  • the mechanism of vulcanization and the action of accelerators

    The Mechanism of Vulcanization and the Action of Accelerators

    To elucidate the mechanism of vulcanization we have studied the reaction of benzothiazolyl disulfide (MBTS) with hydrogen sulfide. In a hydrocarbon medium these compounds react at room temperature forming quantitatively elementary sulfur and mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Kinetics of this reaction are shown in Figure 1.

  • mechanism of the action of accelerators of vulcanization

    Mechanism of the Action of Accelerators of Vulcanization

    The problem of the mechanism of the action of accelerators and vulcanizing agents during the vulcanization of rubber has been studied in earlier works. It was shown that, during the vulcanization of natural and sodium-butadiene rubber, accelerators of the type of mercaptobenzothiazole and tetramethylthiuram disulfide enter into exchange

  • vulcanization accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    Vulcanization Accelerators - polymerdatabase.com

    The accelerators can be further classified as primary and secondary accelerators. The primary accelerators are typically used at 0.5 to 1.5 phr. The vulcanization speed of these system can range from slow to ultra fast depending on composition and type of accelerator.

  • synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    Synthesis and mechanism of the action of phosphoruscontaining

    The proposed mechanism of action agrees with the fact that on heating the: 26 V.P. BUDTOV e$ al. accelerators with sulphur in conditions of vulcanization a product forms with tetracoordinated phosphorus atom which was fixed by us by the alp NMR method.

  • the action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    The action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    The action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators 99 :o,o ,1~ # m ~ I0 o.l.I M Sulphenamtde C/.3 t tO 41 IIZIll 0 Parts by wt. I I I ! I I I I rMrM oeBI~ ~ ill " @ZttlllParts by wt. FIO. 9. Activity of the binary system N-cyclohexyl-2- benzothiazolsulphenamide--tetramethylthiuram monosulphide.

  • vulcanization & accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators

    1 Vulcanization & Accelerators Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links(of sulfur). The vulcanization process was discovered in 1839 and the individuals responsible for this discovery were

  • chemical interaction and mechanism of activation of binary

    Chemical interaction and mechanism of activation of binary

    An investigation of the vulcanization of various types of butadiene‐styrene and natural rubbers showed that double accelerator systems may be divided into three groups; namely: systems with mutual activation of the accelerators, systems with activation of one of the accelerators, and systems with additive action of the accelerators.

  • the mechanism of accelerator action. reaction

    The Mechanism of Accelerator Action. Reaction

    The investigation of the reaction of sulfur with mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is of great interest from the point of view of clarifying the mechanism of the action of the latter as a vulcanization accelerator. We studied the reaction of MBT with elemental sulfur in the melt and in solvent media—vaseline oil and xylene.

  • the action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    The action of binary systems of vulcanization accelerators

    THE ACTION OF BINARY SYSTEMS OF VULCANIZATION ACCELERATORS * B. A. DOGADKIN, M. S. FEL'DSHTEIN and E. N. BYELIAEVA Scientific-Research Institute of the Tyre Industry, Moscow (Received 8 January 1919) MIXTURES of two or moreeccelerators, as a rule, have a higher vulcanization acti- vity than each of the given accelerators used singly.

  • reactions of accelerators during vulcanization. iv--mechanism

    Reactions of Accelerators during Vulcanization. IV--Mechanism

    The Mechanism of Zinc(II)-Dithiocarbamate-Accelerated Vulcanization Uncovered; Theoretical and Experimental Evidence. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1999, 121 (1) , 163-168. DOI: 10.1021/ja982217n. Heinz Krebs, Herbert Fassbender, Franz Jörgens.

  • study of the decomposition mechanism of vulcanization

    Study of the decomposition mechanism of vulcanization

    EPR using a radical “trap” was used to study the decomposition of vulcanization accelerators under the action of temperature, UV radiation and electron donors. An assumption was made concerning the possible location of homolytic rupture of bonds during the decomposition of accelerators.

  • mechanism of action of phosphorylated dithiocarbamates on the

    Mechanism of action of phosphorylated dithiocarbamates on the

    A30: No. 3, 492-496, 1988. 476 A.N. PUDOVIK et gL THE mechanism of sulphur vulcanization of an rubber mix consisting of many ingre- dients has been insufficiently studied: due attention has not been paid to the chemical interactions between the vulcanization accelerator and the traditional components of the compound-zinc oxide and stearic acid.

  • vulcanization of rubber

    Vulcanization of Rubber

    mechanism of action of two of them, called accelerator and premature vulcanization inhibitor (PVI), are described in the following as illustrative examples (Figure 2). An Accelerator in Action Sulfenamides have been found to have the unique ability to accelerate the vulcanization process. The mechanism of acceleration is shown in Figure 3. In

  • reactions of accelerators during vulcanization. iv--mechanism

    Reactions of Accelerators during Vulcanization. IV--Mechanism

    The Mechanism of Zinc(II)-Dithiocarbamate-Accelerated Vulcanization Uncovered; Theoretical and Experimental Evidence. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1999, 121 (1) , 163-168. DOI: 10.1021/ja982217n. Heinz Krebs, Herbert Fassbender, Franz Jörgens.

  • mechanism of mill breakdown and vulcanization in the presence

    Mechanism of Mill Breakdown and Vulcanization in the Presence

    Abstract The mechanism of the action of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, MBT, one of the most commonly employed accelerators of vulcanization, remains unclear. L.

  • some observations on the mechanism of action of retarders

    Some observations on the mechanism of action of retarders

    In addition, NDPA was the only compound found, from the vulcanization accelerator and retarders tested, to affect the free‐radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate. A purely ionic mechanism for sulfur vulcanization of natural rubber accelerated by benzthiazolesulfenamide derivatives has therefore been assumed and used to help in the

  • sulfur vulcanization

    Sulfur vulcanization

    Accelerants (accelerators) act much like catalysts allowing vulcanization to be performed cooler yet faster and with a more efficient use of sulfur. They achieve this by reacting with and breaking the sulfur to form a reactive intermediate, referred to as a sulfurating agent.

  • a benzoxazole sulfenamide accelerator: synthesis, structure

    A benzoxazole sulfenamide accelerator: Synthesis, structure

    In comparison with the benzothiazole accelerator, the benzoxazole sulfenamide revealed nearly no reversion, an improved feature that is desirable for tire industry. Through the synthesis of the zinc complex 9 , which was assumed to be an accelerator‐activator for vulcanization, the study aimed to shed some light on the vulcanization mechanism.